Langsung ke konten utama

Relationships Religion and Culture in Indonesia

Relationships Religion and Culture in Indonesia
(Month Suro In Perceptions of Islam and Society)


FOREWORD



Bismillahirrahmanirrahim
Praise be to God for the abundance of grace, Taufiq, and His Hidayah so the task of this paper can be resolved properly. Shalawat and hopefully terlimpahkan greetings to our master the Prophet Muhammad that has provided inspiration to the author so terselesaikanlah task of this paper. although there are still many shortcomings, as the saying goes "there is no ivory that is not cracked", for that constructive criticism and suggestions are encouraged by the drafters.
Hopefully this paper is particularly useful for the reader. Amen ... ...
16 September 2011

        compiler

      









TABLE OF CONTENTS

preface
table of contents

Chapter I Introduction
1. Background
2. Problem Formulation
3. Purpose
Chapter II Conception Theory
1. Understanding Religion
2. Religion and Culture
3. Religion and Culture Indonesia
4. The process of introduction of Islam to Indonesia
5. Islam and cultural meeting Nusantara
Part III Case Studies
Chapter IV Analysis and Conclusions
Study Library


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A.    Background
Since the 1st century AH or the 7th century AD, the region of Southeast Asia began berkenalanan with "tradition" of Islam, although the frequency is not too large. This introduction takes place in line with the rise of Muslim merchants in several places in Southeast Asia. The oldest evidence of the existence of "community" of Muslims in Southeast Asia are the two tombs are bertarikh around the 5th century AD in Pandurangga Hijriah/ke-11 (now Panrang, Viet Nam) and in Learn (Gresik, Indonesia).
Islam in a more tangible presence in Indonesia occurred at about the 13th century AD, by the tomb of Sultan Malik as-Saleh who died in the month of Ramadan Hijriah/1297 696 AD. This means that in the 13th century AD in the archipelago of existing institutions are patterned Islamic empire.
Muslim merchants had trading activity since the 7th century AD. Some Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in the archipelago has been doing trade and diplomatic relations with the Islamic kingdoms in the Middle East. Archaeological evidence that supports that direction was found in the Java Sea near Cirebon. Among the commodities trades that came from the Middle East found indicators of "Islamic" in the form of a handfuls mold (mold) that read husnah Beautiful Names.
Although most of Indonesia adopts the Sunni community, but in practice this time in Sumatra and Java adopt Shi'ism. Archaeological data show that Islam entered the archipelago comes from the Persian through Gujarat, then brought by merchants to Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia and the Malay Peninsula Land.
Since the beginning of its development, Islam in Indonesia has received a cultural accommodation. Because Islam as a religion does much to give the norms of rules of life compared with other religions. When viewed in terms of Islamic culture, there are at least two things that need to be clarified: konsespsi Islam as a socio-cultural, and Islam as a cultural reality. Islam as a cultural conception is often referred to by experts with great tradition (great tradition), whereas the reality of Islam as a cultural tradition called a little (little tradition) or the local tradition (local tradition) or also Islamicate, areas in which "Islamic", which influenced Islam.
Great traditions (Islam) is the original doctrines of Islam are permanent, or at least a strict interpretation inherent in the basic teachings. In a smaller space is included in the conception of the doctrine of faith and sharia-Islamic law that inspired the act of thinking and Muslims. These traditions are often also referred to the center (center), which contrasted with the fairy-ferry (edges).
The tradition of small (local tradition, Islamicate) is a realm of influence, areas that are under the influence of Islam (great tradition). Local traditions include the elements contained in the cultural understanding that includes concepts or norms, as well as the activity of human action, and of the works produced by society.
In other terms the process of acculturation between Islamic and local culture are then gave birth to what is known as the local genius, namely the ability to absorb while holding the selection and active processing of the influence of foreign culture, so as to achieve a new and unique creation, that does not exist in the nation cultural influence. On the other hand local genius has characteristics include: able to stand against foreign cultures; have the ability to accommodate the elements of foreign cultures; have the ability to integrate elements of foreign cultures into the culture asliu; and memilkiki kemampuanmengendalikan and provides direction on subsequent cultural developments.
As a norm, rule, or the whole activity of Indonesian society, Islam has become a fad pattern of society. In this context, Islam as a religion has become a cultural community as well as Indonesia. On the other hand local cultures that exist in society, do not automatically disappear with the presence of Islam. Local cultures are constantly being developed in part with getting the colors of Islam. This development gave birth "acculturation", between the local culture and Islam.
B.     Problem formulation
• When Islam arrived in Indonesia?
• How does the arrival of Islam in Indonesia?
• What implications for the culture of Islam in Indonesia?
• What is the process of assimilation of Islam in Indonesian society?
• What is the process of acculturation between Islam and the culture of the archipelago?


C.     Purpose.
• Knowing when the introduction of Islam into Indonesia
• Knowing how to process the entry of Islam in Indonesia
• Know the implications of the introduction of Islam to the cultural changes in Indonesia
• Knowing the process of assimilation of Islam in Indonesian society
• Knowing the process of acculturation between Islam and the culture of the archipelago.

















CHAPTER II
Conception THEORY
A.    Understanding Religion
The word religion comes from Sanskrit meaning of a word does not mean chaos and gamma. Both words mean something if it is connected is not chaotic. So the function of religion in this sense to maintain the integrity of a person or group of people to relationship with God, each other, and the natural surroundings are not chaotic.
Therefore, according to Hinduism, the religion as a noun serves to maintain the integrity of the person or persons to do with ultimate reality, human beings and the natural surroundings. The lack of chaos was caused by the application of religious laws concerning morality, the values ​​of life that need to be held, interpreted and enforced.
Sense it was also contained in the word religion (in English) is derived from the word religio (Latin), which is rooted in the word religare which means binding. In the sense of religio contained rules on how human service mengutuhkan relation to ultimate reality (vertical) in worship and its relationship to horizontal.1
This religion arose as the answer man by the appearance of a mysterious ultimate reality at once bewitching scary but that meeting did not remain silent man, he must or forced inwardly to merespons.Dalam this connection there is also interpreted in the sense of seeing religare turn back to the matters relating to actions which must diresponnya god to provide guidance in his life.
Islam also adopted the word religion, as a translation of the word al-Din, as set out in the letter of the Qur'an 3: 19 (Zainul Arifin Abbas, 1984: 4). Islamic religion called Din and Al-Din, as a divine institution to lead a man to gain salvation of the world and the hereafter. Phenomenologically, the religion of Islam can be viewed as a corpus of shari'ah which is required by God that must be complied with, because the Shari'ah that the human relationship with God to be intact. This standpoint is to make a noun connotes religion because religion is seen as a set of doctrines.
Komaruddin Hidayat, as quoted by muhammad Wahyuni ​​Nifis (Andito ed, 1998:47) more view religion as a verb, ie as a religious attitude or kesolehan live by the values ​​of the deity.
Although these two views are different because there is a view religion as a noun and a verb, but they both view as a belief system to get across the safety here and there.
With religious people achieve the highest reality. Brahman in Hinduism, the Bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism, as Yahweh is translated "Lord God" (Deuteronomy 6:3) in Christianity, God subhana wata'ala in Islam.
Sijabat has defined religion as follows:
"Religion is a mighty noble of human concerns are revealed as the answer to the call of the Mighty and Eternal. Concern was expressed that great noble in human life, individual or group against God, against man and against the natural universe and its contents ".
Description Sijabat emphasize religion as a result of human reflection to call the Mighty and Eternal. The results are expressed in human life are manifested in relation to ultimate reality, the natural universe and everything in it. The view that says that religion is a movement from above or addressed by the revelation that human beings under.
B.     Religion and Culture
Culture is the whole system according Koentjaraningrat, ideas, actions and results of human labor in the framework of a society that used to belong to human learning. 2
So the culture acquired through learning. Actions are studied, among others, how to eat, drink, dress, speak, farming, carpentry, berrelasi in society is a culture. But culture is not just a matter contained in the technical but the ideas contained in the mind which is then manifested in art, society, work ethos and outlook on life.
Yojachem Wach said about the influence of religion on human culture is immaterial that the mythological relationship depends on the collective mind of God. Religious and social interaction patterns to how they think about God, appreciate and imagine God.
Geertz said more firmly, that the revelations form a psychological structure of human minds that make up the philosophy of life, through which individuals or groups of individuals who direct their behavior. But also the revelation not only produce immaterial culture, but also in the form of sound art, carving, bangunan.3
Can be concluded that the religion-driven culture arising from the process of human interaction with the book which is believed as a result of the creative power of adherents of a religion but is conditioned by the context of living perpetrator, the geographical factors, cultural and some objective conditions.
Objective factors which condition caused the culture of different religions, although religion is the same that inspired it. Therefore, Christianity is growing in North Sumatra Tanah Batak with that in Maluku is not so similar because each has ways of expression are different. There is also the nuances that distinguish Islam who grew up in a society where the influence of Hinduism is kuatdengan who do not.
Likewise, there is a difference between Hinduism in Bali with Hinduism in India, Buddhism in Thailand to the one in Indonesia. So also affect religious culture. Religious culture will continue to grow and develop in line with historical developments in the objective conditions of life of the believer (Andito, ed, 1998:282). But the main thing for all religions is that religion serves as a regulatory tool and simultaneously membudayakannya in the sense of expressing what he believe in the cultural forms in the form unethical, art building, community structure, customs and others. So there pluraisme culture based on religious criteria. This happens because human beings who are homoreligiosus cultivation and can be creative in reality the freedom to create various objects and new values ​​based on religious inspiration.
C.     Religion and culture of Indonesia
If we examine the culture of Indonesia, then it can not help that culture consists of five layers. Layer is represented by the culture of indigenous religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Kristen.4
The first layer is the native religion that has the rites associated with the worship of ancestral spirits who have passed away or more the level of tribal gods like sombaon in Batak Land, religion Merapu in Sumba, Kaharingan in Kalimantan.
Associated with tribal religious rites are associated with the ancestors cause there is a very high family solidarity. Therefore, it is their rites associated with dance and art carving, so the indigenous peoples of Indonesia inherited religion and aesthetics of high art and family values ​​that is very noble.
The second layer dalah Hinduism, which has left the civilization that emphasizes spiritual liberation to be united with Brahman atman exists then by seeking solidarity with liberation from social oppression towards the welfare of the whole. Solidarity was expressed in the sentence Tat Twam Asi, I was you.
The third layer adaalah Buddhism, which had been bequeathed values ​​away from greed and greed. Along with it come the value of restraint and introspection diridengan underwent eight priority road layout.
The fourth layer is the religion of Islam which has donated the order of sensitivity to life through the Shariah, in observance of prayers five times, sensitivity to what is good and what is evil and do good and avoid evil (amar kindness nahi munkar) impact on growth of noble spirit. These are the things donated Islam in the formation of national culture.
The fifth layer is the religion of Christianity, whether Catholic or Protestant. This religion emphasizes the value of love in human relationships. Exceed the demands of love expressed in the cultural meaning of love because love is not unconditional menuntutbalasan yaitukasih. Love is not an emotional spark, but as a concrete act that is treating my neighbor as myself. On the basis of love of the churches has pioneered the establishment of orphanages, hospitals, schools and services to the poor.
In terms of culture, all religious groups in Indonesia have developed a culture of religion to prosperousing regardless of religion, ethnicity and race.
Besides the development of the immaterial cultural religions have also successfully developed a material culture such as temples and bihara-bihara in central Java, as Hindu and Buddhist cultural heritage. Christian culture has pioneered education, art of singing, was the culture of Islam, among others, have inherited the Great Mosque of Demak (1428) in Central Java reeds Wangi. The mosque is a typical flat-roofed three-Indonesia, Arab mosques generally different from the sloping roof. The roof of the three stacking it symbolizes faith, Islam and Ihsan. This mosque without a dome, Indonesia actually has a priority to harmony with the Al-Aqsa alam.Masjid Ghost Tower in Banten bermenaar in the form of a blend of Islam and Hinduism. Rao-rao Mosque in Stone Cage is a mix of various shades of art with the ornaments being approached Indian style house roof made with a motive Minangkabau.5
The fact proves that the legacy of religions in Indonesia have made a more civilized human being is a human enterprise culture to be human.
In terms of culture, religions in Indonesia is the nation's assets, because these religions have provided something for us as a legacy that needs to be maintained. If at the time of the religions of the past working on their own then in this third millennium era religions need to jointly maintain and develop the nation's assets. These ideals can be realized only then if each religious group to appreciate the legacy, but what often happens is the opposite because we are not aware of the value of those assets for the development of Indonesian culture. Because of unconsciousness that we are insulting a religious group as the group who never do anything about it. Even if a large value, but because the results were not from golonganku, then we need not feel grateful.
Even worse, if there is berpenderian beyond what we are evil and suspect. Our problems, how we can appreciate the cultural monuments as belonging to the nation, for that we need:
1. Develop a religious literacy.
The goal for the life of religious pluralism needs to be developed religious literacy, which is an open attitude towards other religions is by way of religious literacy. The development of religious literacy with literacy in education. Kitaakui that during this religious illiteracy of religion outside that was followed. So it needs to be held eradicating blind faith, blind to other religions Because then people often closed, and fanatical without menh \ ghiraukan that there are better than other religions. If people literate religion, then one can understand the sincerity of people who are in submission to God in sincerity. The attitude of religious literacy is freed from the religious attitude of suspicious behavior among one another. The preacher can preach with coolness and harmony without the tendency to attack and vilify others.
2. Developing the spiritual legacy of the religions.
We have revealed previously about the spiritual legacy of every religion in Indonesia. Legacy can be a discourse with the crises facing Indonesia is a multi-dimensional. The problem we are facing the most severe is the problem of corruption, rule of law and social justice. Based on the legacy of those before, that every religion has a capital base in the face of mass-problem, but has never been a discourse together to deliver a joint opinion that is operational.
It seems that every religious group in Indonesia it's time together discussing the problems and overcome them.



D.    The process of introduction of Islam to Indonesia
Speaking about the Islamization of the archipelago, our question is when Islam entered the archipelago and who carry or pass it on. The question then, what kind of Islam that goes and how their present form? First and second questions can be answered theoretically through recent archaeological evidence that comes to us, while the next question can be answered through the lens of culture that can still be seen in several places in the archipelago.
Until now no single written document expressly states that Islam entered the archipelago in the year or so centuries and who bring in is the Nasruddin (for example). The study of the alleged arrival of Islam in the archipelago until now only based on written evidence of the grave headstone and write some scripts that Islamic traders. found in several places in the archipelago, such as in Aceh, Barus (west coast of North Sumatra) and Gresik (East Java).
Islamization of the archipelago is closely related with Islamic history up to now the writing has not "complete" and its nature is still partial. Situation like this long ago been pointed out by President Sukarno, who declared that the attitude of Indonesian clerics have less or even not understanding the necessity of writing history. In addition to the attitude of Indonesian cleric, there are still other obstacles to writing history. Constraints that include lack of data or written sources, as well as the geographical extent of Indonesia so as to integrate data from various regions is also difficult.
About where Islam entered the archipelago, there are some opinions by respective arguments. There is theorized that Islam came from Arabia, Persia, India, and some even claim from China. Although opinions regarding the origin of Islam is different, but there are similarities that Islam entered the archipelago through the "mediation" of the merchant. They trade syi'ar while spreading Islam. This is in accordance with the Hadith: "Convey from me even one verse of this". Then when he got in the archipelago, then distributed by local clerics or the trustees as the Land of existing Java Wali Songo.
There is no single opinion on when the arrival of Islam in the archipelago when considering the relationship of kingdoms in the archipelago with the Middle East, Persia, India, and China's long-standing. The merchants of these places bring in and take the commodity trade to and from the archipelago. Of the archipelago they bring forest products are sold in the market, such as camphor, incense, and spices.
From their original place to bring glass items, ceramics, silk / brocade, precious stones and bronze items. Before Islam there, traders, priests, and monks spread the Indian culture in the archipelago, including the spread of Hinduism and Buddhism. During the century, 70-10 AD, Srivijaya had been a center of Buddhist teaching. Thus, the strong suspicion that Islam entered the archipelago is also carried by the merchants.
More recently, prominence in 2004 in Java Sea waters north of Cirebon found ruins of a ship suspected of sinking due to excess charge. Pertanggalan based ceramics and technology, the ship that sank were from around the 10th century AD. ¬ charge its various originating from various places outside the archipelago. Based on its physical characteristics, can be presumed that the goods cargo ship came from the Middle East, India and China. Most of the merchandise, and some are more items for religious ceremonies or religious objects.
In this brief article, I want to reveal about one way in and development of Islam in the archipelago at a certain time around the 10th century AD. Data for the study material comes from artifacts found from the ship that sank off the coast of Cirebon and other data were found from the results of archaeological research. From these data will then be drawn on the culture of Islam in the archipelago in the present context. Arise and the development of a stream or a particular school may depend on where they come from the flow. At present, some people who are Muslims in Indonesia adheres to the Sunni tradition. But it was likely there is also a tradition of Shia. Both traditions bermazhab Shafi'i.
1. Sailing and Trade
Written sources (history) which is a daily record of the Chinese people, Arabs, Indians, and Persians informs us that the growth and development of shipping and commerce by sea between the Persian Gulf to China since the 7th century or century AD 1 AH, due to encouragement of growth and development-imporium imporium big in the west end and east end of the Asian continent. At the western end emporiums are Muslims under the rule of the Umayyad caliph (660-749 AD) and Abbasid (750-870 AD). At the eastern end of Asia are the Chinese empire under the reign of the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD). Both emporium that is probably the push ¬ rong advanced shipping and Asian trade, but do not forget the role of Srivijaya as an emporium which controls the Straits of Melaka in the second century AD 7-11. Emporium is a maritime empire that focuses on the development of shipping and trade.
Cargo ship that sank in waters off Cirebon may indicate its origin, clapper, the tip sticks pastor, wajra, and statues may be from India. These objects are instruments ceremony held by the Buddhists.
The name Persia is now called Iran, according to Chinese diary is the Po-Po-sse or normal SSU identified or associated with the Persian ships, and are often narrated equally as Ta or Ta-shih-shih K'uo the commonly identified with the Arabs. Po-sse ¬ it can also be referred to the Persians that is, people who speak the language of Zoroastrian Persian-Muslim indigenous people of Iran, which can also be classified in those who are called Ta-shih or Arabs. Zoroaster person known by the Arabs as the Magi who were the majority population of Iran after the lawyer Islamization.
Archaeological evidence indicating the presence of traders in the presence of Po-sse people GSS Po-together with people Ta-shih in the ports along the Straits of Malacca, Sumatra's west coast and east coast of the Malay Peninsula Land to South China Sea coast is known since the 7th century BC or first century Hijra. They are known as traders and sailors accomplished. A daily record of Chinese who travel riterakan ¬ ¬ ce Buddhist monk I-Tsing in 671 AD with a pang ¬ piled Po-sse ship from Canton to the south, namely the Fo-shih (Sriwijaya). The diary indicated the presence of the Persians at the ports in the South China Sea coast and the archipelago. Later in the year 717 AD also reported on the Indian ships that sailed from Sri Lanka to the Srivijaya to the accompaniment of 35 ships Po-sse. But in 720 AD back again to Canton because most of the ships suffered kerusakan.6
Shipping and trade relations between Arabs, Persians, and Sriwijaya apparently coupled with the friendly relations between the kingdoms in areas related to trade. This can be evidenced by the several letters from the Maharaja's Sriwijaya ¬ sent via messenger to the Caliph Omar ibn 'Abd. Al-Aziz (717-720 AD). The contents of the letter, among others, about giving a gift as a token of friendship.
Nusantara (Sriwijaya and Malay) is the discovery of artifacts of glass and glass-shaped vases, bottles, vases, etc. in the Site Barus (west coast of North Sumatra) and sites on the east coast of Jambi (Muara Jambi, Muara Sabak, Lambur). These items are essential commodities which didatang ¬ right of Persia or the Middle East with its harbors, among others Siraf, Musqat, Basra, Kufa, Wasit, al-Ubulla, Kish, and Oman. From Nusantara traders brought crops and forest products. Forest products are very popular at that time was the incense and camphor.
Shipping and trade relations are then followed by political ties, which then caused during the process of Islamization. From this process of Islamisation in the 13th century AD and then came the Islamic kingdom of Samudera Pasai with the first sultannya Malik as-Saleh who died in the year 1297 AD. According to the book History of Melayu, Hikayat Pasai Kings, and the diary of Marco Polo stopped at Peurlak in 1292 AD, Ocean Pasai not just the first Islamic kingdom in Nusan ¬ between, but also in Southeast Asia. The presence of the Islamic empire is increasingly strengthen the relationship between Sumatra and the countries in the Arab and Persian.
In the mid-14th century AD Ibn Batuta stopover in Pasai which at that time was ruled by Sultan Malik al-Zahir. In his diary FITNESS ¬ ¬ but that the Emperor was a devout follower of Islam and he is surrounded by the clergy and the two famous Persian, the Qadi of Shiraz Sharif and Amir Sayyid Taj ad-Din of Isfahan. Experts tasawwuf or Sufis who came to Ocean Pasai and also to Melaka where the sultans like the doctrine of "the perfect man / Insan al-Kamil" probably from Persia.
A few hundred years before the Empire Pasai Ocean, in the Aceh region already patterned Islamic kingdom, the Kingdom of Peurlak. The kingdom was founded in 225 AH or 845 AD by king Sultan Abdal-Aziz Maulana Shah of Arab descent-minded Shiite Quraysh.
The high intensity of trade relations between Persia and the kingdom in the archipelago so high. Not impossible in some places that the Persian merchants, to stay and settle all the Persians. In this place of cultural contacts also occur between two different cultures, and it's possible there are also followers of Shi'ite Islam. This can be detected from the customs and habits practiced by the Shi'a.
2. Cultural relics
At about the 7th century AD the Muslim traders from the Middle East and Persian is eager to trade activities. Based on a belief that every human being in the view of Islam, including mem ¬ Muslim traders have the obligation to convey the teachings of Islam to anyone in accordance with good and persuasive manner, in line with trade affairs ¬ also spread the Islamic religion. Starting from the coastal areas pengislaman Child Indian subcontinent, then triggering / stimulating not only trade relations but also various forms of relations and exchange of religious, social, political, and cultural. Actually since the first centuries of international trade by sea, rather than mere trade relations, but also political and cultural relations.
Although it adheres to a different school with a majority population of Indonesia (Sunnah wal Jamaat Shafi), more or less the Persians had been instrumental in the spread and development of Islam in the archipelago. This was proved by the remains either in the form of material culture (tangible), and which are not (intangible). Cultural relics can still be found in various places in the archipelago, especially in the archipelago west, such as in Sumatra and Java.

2.1 Cargo Cirebon
Among the ruins of the ship that sank off the coast of Cirebon, there are several types of objects that may not be included in commodity goods. Several types of goods is a horn-shaped objects made of gold plated metal, a squid-shaped objects (cuttlefish) of the crystal, mold handfuls (mold) of stone soap (Soapstone), as well as bronze objects that serve as a tool- Buddhist ceremonial tool / Hindu.
People in a boat is a separate community, there are skippers, sailors, and passengers. Overall it was led by a captain. He is in control on the ship. Similarly, passenger vessels consisting of various social status and profession. There is a class of merchants, perhaps some of the nobility and clergy / monks, and there is also a regular passenger. All that can be known from the objects it bears.
Ibn Khordadhbeh, an official who was appointed caliph Abassiyah Dynasty around the 9th century AD, was a merchant who've been to Zabag (Sriwijaya). He wrote a book called Kitab al-wa-l-masalik mamalik (Book of Roads and empire-kingdom). This book contains all the posts and the amount of turnover tax in every place he visited. As an official appointed by the Caliph of course have some signs of legitimacy and other attributes are taken and prey.
Prints made from handfuls batusabun (Soapstone) rectangular (4.2 x 6.7 cm). On one side there is a sentence written in Arabic script style kufik: "al-malk lillah; al-wahid; al-qahhar" which means "All power belongs to God Almighty and the Almighty" in two four-square frame. If translated literally, then the sentence containing the Beautiful Names and Attributes, is precisely the properties owned mausuf (God) who has the power.
Seeing the writing style used kufik still seem stiff when compared to the style of writing on a tombstone kufik Malik as-Saleh (d. 1297 AD) from Ocean Pasai (Aceh). Form of writing is thought to originate from around the century-AD 90-10 which was developed in Kufa during the reign of Bani Abassiyah Caliphate (750-870 AD).
A mold (mold) with traits such as writing scratched on the rectangular area in the negative. The rectangular area that read these two pieces is formed by "scraping" of less than 0.5 mm deep. From the bottom side (viewed from different forms of writing / characters) of the rectangular area that contained the lines meet at one point. At the meeting point and then widens to form a funnel.
The intersecting lines have widths of 1 mm. and in less than 0.5 mm. Parts that make up the funnel width 1-3 mm. At the bottom area of ​​four square, there are two bulges that bergaristengah about 5 mm. and a height of about 3 mm. At the top there is a rectangular area of ​​the line formed by scraping, and other surfaces is higher than the top surface of two rectangular fields.
When observed closely, this thing is sort of molds for precious metals, like gold and silver. There should be a pair of clasped each other, but the other part was not found. Two round protrusions that exist on the surface of the object, a kind of locking pegs that do not move when the casting process. Berlu part ¬ ¬ bang her there should be at the tangkupan missing. The lines are crossed and met in a funnel shape is where the flow of liquid metal that meets the rectangular field. Place on the fluids entering the funnel shape.
The results of the casted metal in the form of thin plates with sentences Beautiful Names and Attributes that arise. The sentences of four square surrounded by ornate frames of points such as generally found in metal coins. The part that extends, can be cut and may also not. I have not been able to ensure the functionality of the printed object. Based on comparisons of known, these objects serve as amulets by writing Beautiful Names and Attributes. Indeed the Islamic faith are not known fetish, but in reality most Muslims see it as a talisman that read Beautiful Names and Attributes.
When examined from the stamp that Arabian beraksara, foreign ships which sank with its cargo in the waters of Cirebon, who comes from boats allegedly Kufa or Basra port which now includes the territory of the Republic of Iraq. This means that the ship with its cargo from around the 10th century AD.
 In his voyage to the east (probably to Kambangputih, Tuban) in waters off Cirebon stricken and sank with its cargo. Judging from its position on the seafloor, the ship is sinking due to excess charge. Part space captain still appeared intact (not too helter skelter).
Horn-shaped artifacts in the straight sections measuring about 10 cm long. Octagonal base section with a diameter of 4 cm. The curved section is decorated with carvings of leaf tendrils. Lotus-shaped base section strands. Based on comparisons with similar objects and a collection of National Museum, the object is upstream of a sword. Hilt of the National Museum collection was found in Cirebon and come from around the tenth century AD, 8-9.
There is another possibility of this artifact serves as an upstream sword (short). Character appears in a rectangular hole at the base. Rectangular hole serves as a place to enter a sharp weapon on the handle bar. When enabled as where ¬ like sword, grip is uncomfortable. It may be a sharp weapon by the handle of gold jewelery engraving serves as a status symbol of the owner.
Other objects thought to be upstream knife or sharp weapon is the object of crystal shaped like a squid (cuttlefish). Sports Section for mema ¬ blades elliptic berdenah weapons. In the photo looks vaguely hole that extends from the tip to the center. The top (see photo) placed attached to the palm of the hand, while the lower part attached to the fingers.
Almost all the artifacts that transported the product is not one of the kingdoms in the archipelago. Some came from the Middle East and India, and some are coming from China. Nevertheless, these artifacts are very large benefits for the cultural history of Indonesia, especially the history of Islam in Indonesia. Based on written sources the historians theorize that the arrival of Islam in Indonesia Islam brought by the merchants. With the discovery of artefacts originating from countries that are Muslim in context with the merchandise, the theory is getting closer to the truth. Matter beraksara Arabic with the names of God, is strong evidence that Islam entered through "intermediaries" Islamic traders.
2.2 Persia Impressions
Trade relations between Persia and Nusantara (at that time with Sriwijaya) takes place at approximately the 7th century AD. At the time of the Persian form of commodity trade goods made of glass or glass known as the Persian Glass. These objects shaped vases, carafes, goblets, and bowls. From Srivijaya that one of its ports is Barus ¬ (Fansur), the Persian and Middle Eastern traders brought camphor, incense, and gum resin. Commodity trading is very popular in the Middle East, Persia, and India as a perfume ingredient.
Persian Glass found in archeological sites that allegedly a former ancient port. An archaeological research at Old Site Labo, Barus managed to find a large number of items found in Persia glass shards and wholeness. Based on the results of these studies, the objects may be present in the place of origin is no longer manufactured. Ports where other goods are shipped between the Siraf that is located on the east coast the Persian Gulf.
Login and development of Islam in the archipelago birth patterned Islamic empire. One of these was the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai who was born at about the 13th century AD with the first sultannya is Sultan Malik as-Saleh (died 1297 AD). Traces of this kingdom can be traced from its cultural relics in the form of gravestone of Sultan Malik as-Saleh. There are two things that can be observed on this tombstone and is an indicator of Persia. Characters engraved on the tombstone is a script whose characteristics shulus triangular at the end. This type of script styles developed in Persia as a karyaseni calligraphy. ¬ chiseled sentences that do adopt the Sufis, for example, "Verily this world his mortal ¬, this world is not eternal, the real world is like a spider's web".
Another indicator of Persia was found on a tombstone Na'ina Husam al-Din a poem written quotation famous Persian poet, Sheikh Muslih al-din Sa'di (1193-1292 CE). Written in Persian with Arabic script, Meru ¬ feed only Persian poem found in Southeast Asia. Tombstone is beautifully shaped with a decorative tree distilir (suppressed) and calligraphic decorations which contains Persian poetry quotations and citations Quran II: 256 verses Chair.
2.3 Wali Sanga and Tasawwuf
Wali Sanga in the land of Java, known as sem ¬ Wali-Ullah nine people are regarded as the leading broadcaster broadcaster-Islamic religion. They are deliberately spreading diligently and teach the main points of Islamic teachings. When the population of Java is still berkeper ¬ old belief that believe in supernatural things, the trustees are believed to have keku ¬ atan occult, psychic excess, and have a high science. That's why they were believed to be the bearer of Islamic scholars and religious broadcaster in tasawwuf.
Wali Sanga were nine people in number, namely Sunan Gunung Jati, Sunan Ampel, Sunan Bonang, Sunan Drajat, Sunan Kalijaga, Sunan Giri, Sunan Kudus, Sunan Muria, and Sheikh Siti Jenar. Most of these titles in ¬ take the name of the place they are buried, such as Gunung Jati near Cirebon, Drajat near Tuban, on the slopes of Mount Muria Muria, in the Holy Ghost, etc..
In their lifetime, they spread Islam in the area where he resided. In the territory that they also build mosques as places of worship. In the area around the southern foot of Mount Muria, many found the remains of tombs of the saints and the mosque tinggalannya, namely Sunan Kalijaga, Sunan Muria, and Sunan Kudus. The mosque was built Demak Mosque and the Holy Mosque.
Although in Indonesia known as Shafi and adheres to the Sunnah wal Jamaat, but among the public in several places in the archipelago are still found traces of previously unknown Shiite center in Persia (Iran). In the Middle East and in Persia, adherents of the Sunnah wal Jamaat and Shi'ite disagree, especially in terms of sources of Islamic law (consensus = consensus of the scholars). In this flow has been started the politicization of religion, especially on the legal basis of consensus. Shi'ites believe that the right to become the Deputy is still descendants of the Prophet Muhammad. With the consensus, it is possible that not a descendant of Prophet Muhammad can be the Caliph. Because that is what the Shi'ites consider al-Quran and Hadith are the basis of Islamic religious law, while the consensus and Qiyash (= per ¬ parable) is not necessary.
The collapse of the empire did not dampen the Shiite doctrine that "already" to evolve in society. Various Shiite ritual transformed into a tradition that is still found in some areas in Nusatara. In Indonesia there are not many Shi'ite (about 1 million), but in some places the usual tradition of Shia Muslims can still be found, and it continuously ¬ done by the community group.
Can be presented as an example of the Shia tradition, for example: Celebration Tabot, or a day of commemoration of the death Arbain Husein ibn Ali (grandson of the Prophet Muhammad) by the Shiites in the form of celebration Tabot (ark). Tabot made from banana stems in ¬ decorate colorful flowers, paraded to the beach, accompanied by cries of "Hayya Hayya Husein Husein" ¬ the meaning of his "Living Hussein, Hussein alive". At the end of the ceremony is then dilarung Tabot on the high seas. Things called Tabot casket symbolizes the corpse. Tabot community celebration is still done on every 10th of Muharram in Bengkulu, Pariaman, and Aceh.
Ashura in Java in Java pertanggalan system turned into a month of Suro, the name for the month of Muharram (month of the death of Hussein). Ashura commemoration later known by the term "Kasan Frame". In Aceh, Ashura termed the Month Asan Usen. In Makassar Ashura interpreted as a celebration of the victory of Islam in the days of Prophet Muhammad SAW, so that people celebrate it with joy ¬. They make a slurry of seven colors of the basic colors red, white, and black.
Arbain Commemoration Day is celebrated also in the village of Marga Mukti, Canning, West Java. Hundreds of Shiite Muslims meet Masjid Al-Amanah to perform nasheed, prayer offerings to the Imam Husayn, and Arbain pilgrimage, prayers for the family of Ali ibn Abi Talib.
Debus. Is to show that its relationship with the congregation Rifa'iyah closely. Tariqa was founded by Ahmad al-Rifa'i who died in 1182 AD.
Congregations are more fanatical views with the characteristics of torture himself, his miracles such as eating glass, walking on hot coals, brushed ¬ ramkan hard water (HCl) into his body, and body pierced with sharp objects. Adherents Rifa'iyah by Debus, varying in Aceh, Kedah, Perak, Banten, Cirebon, and even up to the Moluccas Malay community in South Africa's Cape of Good Hope.
E.     Literature and Language
The works of literary prose from Persia to Indonesia also influence on the literature, for example Menak book written in Java language and script of the original story from the Persian. The Malay Hikayat Amir Hamzah. Book Menak basically similar to the book of Panji, the difference lies in the characters cast. The stories in the sense Menak Hikayat Amir Hamzah, usually shown also in ¬ jukan puppet show performances that supposedly created by Sunan Kudus, shadow puppets created by Sunan Kalijaga, and puppets created by Sunan Giri Gedog. Menak story is not small in number, for example Rengganis a much-loved book by the Sasak people, Lombok and Palembang.
The results of other literature that is influenced by Shiite Kissah Muhammad Hanafi, recounts the battle ¬ mixture Hassan and Hussein, Caliph Ali's children, on the battlefield of Karbala. ¬ Written and translated it in Malay at about the 15th century Masehi.Hikayat Amir Hamzah, a romance based on the legendary figure Hamza ibn Abd. Al-Muttalib, uncle of the Prophet Muhammad S.A.W. The romance was written by Hamzah Fansuri, a Malay scholar adherent tasawwuf.Mir 'at al-Mu'minin (human soul faithful reflection) written by Shamsuddin as-Sumatrani, a spiritual advisor of Sultan Iskandar Muda, student and successor Hamzah Fansuri.
Hamzah Fansuri is the most important figures in the development of Islam and tasawwuf in the archipelago. He was the first person to write down all the fundamental aspects of Sufi doctrine into Malay. He was also instrumental in bringing the Malay language and literature to a new, more advanced level.
Bayan Budiman, stories spoken by a parrot is from India Śukasaptati story, which it also contains tales of pañcatantra. In the Persian story became Tuti-name, and in the archipelago adapted to Hikayat Bayan Budiman.
Persian influence in terms of languages ​​also exist. Some of the vocabulary, especially those related to shipping and trade comes from the Persian words, such as skippers, ports, shahbandar, and the title of the ruler (king or sultan) with the call ¬ Shah or the Shah.

F.      The meeting of Islam and Culture Collection
Since the beginning of its development, Islam in Indonesia has received a cultural accommodation. Because Islam as a religion does much to give the norms of rules of life compared with other religions. When viewed in terms of Islamic culture, there are at least two things that need to be clarified: konsespsi Islam as a socio-cultural, and Islam as a cultural reality. Islam as a cultural conception is often referred to by experts with great tradition (great tradition), whereas the reality of Islam as a cultural tradition called a little (little tradition) or the local tradition (local tradition) or also Islamicate, areas in which "Islamic", influenced Islam.7
Great traditions (Islam) is the original doctrines of Islam are permanent, or at least a strict interpretation inherent in the basic teachings. In a smaller space is included in the conception of the doctrine of faith and sharia-Islamic law that inspired the act of thinking and Muslims. These traditions are often also referred to the center (center), which contrasted with the fairy-ferry (edges).
The tradition of small (local tradition, Islamicate) is a realm of influence, areas that are under the influence of Islam (great tradition). Local traditions include the elements contained in the cultural understanding that includes concepts or norms, as well as the activity of human action, and of the works produced by society.
In other terms the process of acculturation between Islamic and local culture are then gave birth to what is known as the local genius, namely the ability to absorb while holding the selection and active processing of the influence of foreign culture, so as to achieve a new and unique creation, that does not exist in the nation cultural influence. On the other hand local genius has characteristics include: able to stand against foreign cultures; have the ability to accommodate the elements of foreign cultures; have the ability to integrate elements of foreign cultures in indigenous cultures, and have the ability to control and provide direction on cultural development selanjutnya.8
As a norm, rule, or the whole activity of Indonesian society, Islam has become a fad pattern of society. In this context, Islam as a religion has become a cultural community as well as Indonesia. On the other hand local cultures that exist in society, do not automatically disappear with the presence of Islam. Local cultures are constantly being developed in part with getting the colors of Islam. This development gave birth "acculturation", between the local culture and Islam.
Local cultures that later acculturated with Islam, among others, the event slametan (3,7,40,100, and 1000 days) among the Javanese. Tingkeban (nujuh Day). In the arts, also found the process of acculturation as the puppet arts in Java. Wayang is a Javanese traditional arts originating from India Hindu religion. Islamization process does not eliminate this art, but rather enrich it, which gives the color values ​​of Islam in dalamnya.tidak only in the arts, but also in other fields within the Java community. In other words, the arrival of Islam in the archipelago in certain stages contributed significant in the development of local culture.
On the other hand, the physical material that acculturation can be seen for example: the shape of the Great Mosque of Banten are roofed overlapping, thick rocky, poster pillars, and so forth really shows the characteristics of local architecture. While the essence of Islam lies in the "spirit" function mosque. Similarly, two types of gates and paduraksa briefly as a threshold into the mosque in the palace Kaibon. But conversely, "stranger's face" looked very clear in Banten Grand Mosque complex, namely through the establishment of buildings Tiamah fugitives associated with Portuguese architecture, Lucazs Cardeel, and the establishment of the lighthouse-shaped tower is connected with a Chinese name: Check-tire Cut.9
In subsequent developments, as told in the Babad Banten, Banten and then developed into a city. Bantam palace itself is equipped with structures that characterize the patterned Islamic courts prototype in Java, as in Cirebon, Yogyakarta and Surakarta. Capital of the Kingdom of Banten and Cirebon then serve as a center for international trade activities with the characteristics of metropolitan cities where the population is not only comprised of local residents, but also there is a settlement-perkampunan strangers, among others Pakoja, Chinatown, and the ward for the Europeans such as Britain, France and so on.
In the field of harmony, Islam in Banten in the past continue to give equal treatment to other believers. The Muslim rulers in Punjab for example has shown great tolerance to other faiths. For example, by allowing the establishment of monasteries and churches around the settlement of China and Europe. Even the non-Muslim regiment participated escort ruler of Banten. Awards or good treatment without distinction of religion by the rulers and the people of Banten to other believers at that time, also can dilisaksikan in other regions of the archipelago, especially in the aspects of trading. Islamic rulers in various parts of the archipelago has established trade relations with the Chinese, Indians and others even among their different beliefs.
Aspects of local culture with Islamic acculturation can also be seen in Sundanese culture is in the field of art called the art of gritty vocals. In art and outs often read type cirita (wawacan) on ketauladanan and high religious attitudes of the characters. Often wawacan outs of the art is derived from local cultural elements of pre-Islamic and Islamic elements such as integrated with the wawacan Ugin which tells the man that has a personality that is high quality. Art outs are now usually served on special occasions or tasyakuran salvation, for example, to commemorate the birth of the baby-4-day (shaving), salvation thanksgiving ceremony to other woods such as pregnancy-7 months (nujuh months or tingkeban), circumcision, the rice harvest is completed and warnings great days nationwide.
Islamic acculturation with the local cultures of the archipelago as in Java, found also in other daearah regions outside Java, such as West Sumatra, Aceh, Makassar, Kalimantan, North Sumatra, and other areas. Special areas of North Sumatra, among other akulurasi process can be seen in events such as wages, fresh flour, and Marpangir.

G.    Islamic exclusivism toward Inclusivism
If in the non-theological or social Islam is so very accommodating to the local culture, unlike the case with other regions, especially with respect to the theological aspects (Aqeedah). In this theological problem of Islam explicitly draw a line of demarcation. Islam appears to face an extremely exclusive. Islamic affirmation contained in the Qur'an sura Al-Ikhlas, surah Al-Kafirun and that is reflected in two sentences sahadah. This is the central doctrine of Islam that came to be called to monotheism; recognition of sovereignty and the absoluteness of God and an affirmation that Muhammad was the last prophet sent by God to mankind on earth.
Exclusive claims of Islam as reflected in the theological doctrine does not mean that Muslims become the exclusive people who deny pluralism. Since Islam also greatly emphasized inclusivism, as stated in the primary sources of Islam (Surah al-Kafirun eg: 6, QSal-Hujarat: 13) and as well as those practiced in the early history of the formation of Islamic society.
The ideal of harmony between Muslims and non-Muslims as exemplified prophet and who later became the model code of conduct for community life and this state can be seen in the original grains "Medina Charter". In the charter rights of adherents of Judaism to coexist peacefully with Muslims dinyataan explicitly. KaumYahudipun dignity and then lifted from the mere tribal clients became legal citizens as experienced by the Muslims. There was no difference in treatment between the two. Thus the position was never owned by the Jews since the invasion of Babylon in 586 BC. In the frame of this country the Jews of Medina could live the teachings of his religion in accordance with the teachings of the Torah. Not only that, the state guarantees and Medina are also the responsibility of the Yahudian it. Medina states that such treatment without unfair discrimination, particularly against the Jewish community is to deliver the various aspects of Jewish civilization reached its "golden age" under Islamic rule.
Special circumstances has also been experienced by the Christians, especially after the "Futuhat" Makkah. The Christians of Najran Yemen came to the Prophet to clarify their position vis-à-vis the Islamic state. Their delegation was well received by the Prophet. Some of them later converted to Islam. while others remained on his religious beliefs within the framework of an Islamic state. The Prophet then solidified their position as a unique ummah, as experienced by the Jews.
Practice harmony as exemplified by the prophet Muhammad's companions of the Prophet passed on as did Umar bin Khattab when expanding into areas of Christian Byzantium. When the territory is conquered, Umar entered into an agreement with the local bishop that contains about Islam guarantees the existence of Christians in the power Islam. 11
The principle of equality, justice and freedom granted by the ruler of Islam to other peoples that later led to Christians grow and become widespread. Even in the first centuries of Hijra, the majority of the population in the Muslim political entities are adherents Kisten. Such a situation they do not find in the earlier periods such as during the reign of Roman Christian and Byzantine Greece.
Noble principles of harmony can also be found in almost in areas other Islamic powers, as in the child the Indian subcontinent. In this region the adherents, Hinduism and Buddhism have the same rights as that obtained by the Jews and Christians. When the Muslim rule ended, the people remain on the original conviction. This proves that the principle of toleration or harmony remains the guideline for Muslim rulers.
Even the development of Islamic civilization which reached its peak during the Abbasid partly due to the harmonious development of this theology. It is hard to imagine that the progress of science and Islamic civilization without the participation of adherents of other faiths. In the developmental stages with all aspects of Islamic culture is almost always grounded in the roots of harmony. The progress of science and technology in the Abbasid period that gave birth to the various branches of science begins with the involvement of experts from non-Muslims that begins with a process such massive translation of the Christian and Persian.
Meanwhile, the dialogues or exchange thoughts between the Christians with Muslims as noted by Annemarie Schimmel also have started running. Such dialogues are generally carried out in the palaces of Muslim rulers, even if mutual understanding and reciprocal harmony does not develop as expected. This is due to the persistence of negative prejudices of each party. Muslim theologians such as studying the Old Testament and New Testament to refute Ketuhaan Jesus, and the Crucifixion of Jesus, and accused the Christians have perverted scripture. While on the other hand, the Christians study Islam just to prove that Islam was a religion of heretics and anti-Christ.
The relationship between Islam and Christianity during this period did not always run in a state of peaceful co-existence. Because since the ninth century AD has begun to seem that the seeds of disharmony. This is due among other socio-political developments within the power of Islam itself which has shown the split. Instability in the political realm in turn disrupt the Islamic-Christian relations.
Doktinal difference between Christianity and Islam are not always easy to reconcile, perhaps even regarded as something improbable. For example the difference between Islam and Christianity concerning the Deity of Jesus, especially about the crucifixion. Islamic parties generally believe that no crucifixion terhadapYesus (Prophet Isa). While Christians the crucifixion of Jesus as something that conviction is final. Similarly, the doctrine of apostleship of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Prophet Muhammad as the final, but Christians do not acknowledge this. Both of these religions do not recognize each of salvation outside of his religion. Here are some fundamental principles that distinguish the two, making it difficult to put together.
In addition to doctrinal differences theologically, another difference that puts Islam as a doctrine is exclusively the teachings of Islam regarding the prohibition of eating certain animals. (QSal-Maidah: 3). This doctrine of Islam could not negotiable as inalienable which should obeyed. While in other religions, especially Christian prohibition on eating certain animals (pigs and dogs) do not exist. On the other hand Hindu (India) it was forbidden to eat certain animals, while Islam actually recommend it as a sacrificial animal, such as beef animals.
The difference is the reality of human life that God deliberately created human beings vying to become the best. (QS49: 13) For if God willing, he will make human beings into one people alone without each other's differences.
Thus, religion and culture should be able to be instrumental for the development of culture and culture should go hand in hand in order to strengthen inter-religious harmony.
So religious harmony does not mean the unification of central theological concepts of each religion, but rather the mutual understanding and mutual understanding of the fundamental doctrinal differences that. Harmony in the sense that unification can only be possible in areas of non-theological, social and cultural as with all the elements in it. Harmony within the meaning of this is called acculturation. This is precisely what Muslims at that time that gave birth to a very high culture, known as the golden age of Islam that culminated in the Abbasid period.

CHAPTER III
CASE STUDY
Cultural diversity to be one of the main features of community-owned Indonesia. From the time when the kingdoms are still present to support the living history of this country until the modern era like now, diversity is still there, visible even increasing. Inequality is now no longer monopolize the large urban areas is usually a place bermuaranya various cultures and religions. In every corner of this archipelago, has been filled with many different varieties of the long journey that's Indonesia as a pluralistic nation, membekaskan a self body image in this multicultural. Indonesia is one of the tangent to a wide range of cultures and religions. The process of assimilation or acculturation is often seen in the motions of the practical nuances of life in it. Call it like Javanese Islamic culture.
Motion to live Islam in Java is unique compared with other Muslims in this country, although this is not absolutely be used as a foothold, but at least Javanese Islam has certain characteristics among others. Gertz even a world-renowned anthropologist to conduct a research study long enough to read the face of Islam in Java. By sampling Modjokuto Islamic societies, concluded that Gertz has three strata of Javanese Islam in practice, students, abangan, and gentry. Although much criticized, in some ways I think the true Gertz. Is not the study of anthropology was never declared an objectivity in the results obtained. The possibility could arise is intersubjektifitas of a phenomenon. That's presumably capable of reading Gertz Javanese Islam from the point of view that is not necessarily the same as us, and again it brings its own truth.
The uniqueness of Javanese Islam according to Gertz in my thesis lies in the spirituality movement undertaken by the Group Abangan. On the cultural roots that are owned by these groups, violent culture does not seem so prominent. Even in the encounter between Islam and Javanese culture in them look so intimate. Both Islamic and Javanese elements, look no mutual understanding. Scour-scour that may be regarded as cultural syncretism is running slowly and eventually becomes synergy. An interesting example is the new year 1429 Hijra warning some time ago in Sragen, Central Java. Interesting events took place in the Indian prince tomb complex. A character shrine to the local community. The history of culture must beg a blessing on this place still seems vague. What is clear this culture exists as a form of acculturation Javanese culture and Islam. Nuances of the two elements are so thick, mixed raises a new tradition that does not leave the grass roots they have.
The event itself is a ritual that surrounds the tomb of the turn selambu Ocean Prince. Routine activities are carried out each turn of the Javanese and Islamic new year which is celebrated in unison Substitution selambu tomb to be interesting because a series of ceremonial that is in it. After selambu surrounds the tomb was opened during the year, the event continued to Kedung Ombo. In the reservoir which is also considered sacred, selambu had dipped, a symbol of self-purification as well as the human body that needs to be cleaned. When it has finished selambu moistened with water reservoir, the fabric even this was immediately taken back to the tomb complex. Usually the people who expect a blessing, immediately scrambling selambu water droplets that had just been soaked. Precipitation is typically used for wiping the face or other body parts.
When it came back to the tomb complex, following the event continued with the ritual of flushing. Water used to rinse selambu, is water from seven springs around the tomb complex of the Indian Princes. Seven water was placed in seven different barrels. And in turn had become the seventh barrel selambu flushing. The event ends with a breath prayer of Islam, this is the form of acculturation it appears. Rituals of this kind before the arrival of Islam is filled with prayer-prayer of a Hindu or Buddhist, Muslim dating after replaced with prayer-prayer that comes from the Islamic holy book.









CHAPTER IV
ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSIONS
Login and development of Islam in Indonesia to bring the changes in various aspects of community life. Temple and petirtaan not built anymore, but then came the mosque, mosque, and tomb. Caste system in society is removed, statues of gods and zoomorphic forms are no longer made. The artists then carved calligraphic pursue, develop and geometric decorative flora, as well as decorative stiliran childbirth. The cities have a spatial component and a new, even in the seventeenth century AD by Sultan Agung raises Caka and Hijri calendar. However, on the other hand culture can not be boxed-boxing, so there is also continuity, continuity of innovative nature. The mosque and tomb cunggup take the form of roof overlap, such as the Great Mosque of Demak, which essentially forms known in the past as it appears in some temple reliefs. Similarly, the mosque tower where the muezzin calls to prayer, like the tower in the Tower at the Holy Mosque. Its basic form is not much different from the temples of East Java style slender and tall, but the details differ. The head of building an open, shallow niche-niche because it does not contain statues, reliefs and decorative porcelain plate is replaced with a patch.
Islamic tomb building is a novelty at that time Indnesia, thus creating grave, sepulcher, and also cungkub, in various forms of art. The oldest tombs tombstones in Java, such as the tomb of Fatimah bin Maimun and the Tomb of Malik Ibrahim, according to research diimpr an object in its finished form, as seen from the style of Arabic script in his inscriptions and types of ornamentation used. However, subsequent tombs tombstones are made in Indonesia by local artists. This is partly visible from the ornamentation is used, for example curved braces, patra, etc.. Even at the burial of kings Binamu in Jeneponto (South Sulawesi) on top of tomb statues of people who are buried there. This is something that never happened in other places.
In urban development, especially the city of the kingdom in Java, also can be seen the change and continuity. In the civic center, these cities are the square, palace, grand mosque, and the market is styled according to specific patterns. All around there are other buildings, as well as human settlements are also arranged in groups according to the type of work, home, and social status.
In its way, a common culture is experiencing change and development. Therefore, the cultural patterns in a region vary from era to era. Changes that occur because there is contact with other cultures, or in other words because there are forces from outside. The relationship between the supporters of two different cultures in a long time resulted in acculturation, which reflects the presence of the giver and receiver. In the process occurs mixing elements of both cultures who met them. At first element-the element can still be recognized easily, but in time they will appear new properties that do not exist in the parent culture. Apparently the process described above repeatedly occurred in Indonesia, including when Islam came in and grow in Indonesia. Meetings and acculturation between Hindu-Buddhist culture, Prehistoric, and Islam (and also Western culture) occurred in the long term, and gradually. No doubt that during the course of tension and conflict. However, it is part of the process towards acculturation. Acculturation is a factor supporting the equality and cultural flexibility giver and receiver, in this pre-Islamic culture and Islam. One example is building a mosque. Acculturation also sparked the creativity of artists, creating new cultural outcomes that had not been there, also a new way of life.
After learning that occurs acculturation and changes to form-Islamic culture of Indonesia, it is necessary to consider how development on the present and future. In terms of material culture should be done in accordance with the developments of technology advances, so that no stagnation, but without leaving the wisdom-wisdom that has been generated.
The results showed that the Islamic acculturation enrich the existing culture by showing continuity. However, it remains with its own characteristic. Acculturation results also reveal a chain-link in the development of Indonesian culture. In order for the chain-chain remains seem obvious, it should be an integrated management of Indonesia's cultural inheritance. It should be mentioned and emphasized, given the many endangered cultural heritage, mainly due to lack of awareness and understanding of Indonesian society itself.
Trade relations between the kingdoms in the archipelago with Persia (Iran) allegedly been going on since the 7th century BC or first century Hijra. ¬ regulation of the relationship of this trade, then have an impact on religious thought, especially Sufism, or tasawwuf with the congregation-order. Besides impact also on the elements kebuda ¬ rich. Bebe ¬ couple and congregation Shiite tradition still maintained by community groups ¬ ter of course in Indonesia. In some works of literature and literary language that smelled of Sufi and Persian vocabulary was adopted in Malay literature and vocabulary in the Indonesian language.
Perhaps there are many more elements of other cultures that have not been recorded in the life of Indonesian people who have Persian influence. All this requires research from various disciplines-humanities and social sciences, like archeology and history, anthropology, sociology, religion, linguistics, and literature.
There is one thing that we should be grateful in the religious life in the country is Indonesia. In the country of Muslims from different schools can live in harmony. Such a situation has been "created" since the early days of the arrival of Islam in the archipelago. The conduct of religious broadcasters delivering persuasive manner and adapt to local culture, such as Islamic symbols of Wali Sanga convey by means of puppet. Not an iota of coercion. Meanwhile in other parts of the world, we see how Lebanon, Iraq and Afghanistan to devastating conflicts as a result of fellow Muslims who might be due to provoke the other party.














REFERENCES
·         Poerbatjaraka, R, Ng, 1952, Riwayat Indonesia I, Yayasan Pembangunan: Jakarta
·         Azyumardi Azra, 1999, Konteks Berteologi di Indonesia: Pengalaman Islam, Paramadina: Jakarta
·         Hasan Muarif Ambary, 1998, Menemukan Peradaban Islam: Arkeologi dan Islam di Indonesia: Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional: Jakarta
·         Koentjaraningrat, 1980, Pokok-Pokok Antropologi Sosial, Penerbitan Universitas: Jakarta
·         Soerjanto Poespowardoyo, 1986, Pengertian Local Genius dan Relevansinya Dalam Modernisasi, “Kepribadian Budaya Bangsa (local genius)”, Pustaka Jaya: Jakarta
·         Geertz, Clifford, 1992, Kebudayaan dan Agama, Kanisius: Yogyakarta
·         Andito, 1998, Atas Nama Agama, Wacana Agama Dalam Dialog Bebas Konflik, Pustaka Hidayah: Bandung
·         Mulyono Sumardi, 1982, Penelitian Agama, Masalah dan Pemikiran, Pustaka Sinar Harapan: Jakarta
·         Badri Yatim, 2006, Sejarah Peradaban Islam, Raja Grafindo Persada: Jakarta
·         Hamka, 1975, Sejarah Umat Islam IV, Bulan Bintang: Jakarta
·         www.hukumit.blogspot.com
1 Mulyono Sumardi, Penelitian Agama, Masalah dan Pemikiran, hal. 71
2 Koentjaraningrat, Pengantar Ilmu Antropologi, hlm. 170
3 Geertz, Clifford, Kebudayaan dan Agama, 1992, hlm. 13
4 Andito, Atas Nama Agama, Wacana Agama Dalam Dialog Bebas Konflik, 1998, hlm. 77-79
5 Tule, Philipus, Wilhelmus Julie, ed Agama-agama, Kerabat Dalam Semesta, hlm. 159.
6 Poerbatjaraka, R, Ng, 1952, Riwayat Indonesia I, hlm. 31-32
7 Azyumardi Azra, Konteks Berteologi di Indonesia: Pengalaman Islam, hal. 13.
8 Soejanto Poespowardojo, Pengertian Local Genius dan Relevansinya dalam modernisasi, kepribadian budaya bangsa (local genius), hal. 28
9 Hasan Muarif Ambary, Menemukan Peradaban Islam: Arkeologi dan Islam di Indonesia, hlm. 209.

Postingan populer dari blog ini